The disadvantage of this method is the the damaging effect it has on the environment, as bacteria withdraws oxygen from the water potentially killing fish. On the 13th century carving of the northern portal of the cathedral of Chartres/ France, there are several female figures doing textile work. Siuts, H., 1982. I have grown and processed flax in a small open-air museum since 2014, and have been able to produce high quality fibre in 2016 and 2017. Answer: Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. On its surface, linen production research is simple as there is a large corpus of books available; however, the majority of these date to the last three centuries. LinkedIn Group: EA Fibres are drawn out and twisted. The water retting is done for a period of 5 days reducing the non fibrous content in PALF by about 25% and the resultant fibre is found to have a linear density of 2.26 tex and an average linear density of about 3.8 tex after microbiological retting. Terminologie der Hanf- und Flachskultur in den frankoprovenzialischen Mundarten. It is done in the field, taking advantage of the natural elements of dew, rain and sun, or under controlled conditions using water, enzymes or chemicals. The water tends to smell very bad and is poisonous to most of crops, humans and animals (Dambroth and Seehuber, 1988, p.83; Harzheim, 1989, p.20). Haarnagel, W., 1979. Helsinki. The short fibres combed are called tow and can be carded by hand and spun as well. Hemp and nettle can be used to make linen like cloth and the steps for flax and hemp processing do not differ much. Flax is harvested when the lower third of the stem begins to turn yellowish and loses its leaves. Retting If hemp or flax (linen) fibers are to be used in textiles and other high-quality applications, the bast fibers must be separated from the rest of the stalk. Thanks 1. Pictures by Alfred Glokendon from 1526 depict scutching. Their whole production process, from receiving the spun yarn, is done by hand. (Dewilde, 1999, p.90; Dr. Simonyi, Erika, Hungary National Museum: “The iron comb was found in the 1950' by István Méri at a medieval village (Tiszalök-Rázom).”). Cotton oil is extracted from its seeds, which is refined to use as a cooking oil. While discussing fibre extraction methods, it is essential to mention the decortication process – the extraction of green fibre without retting. In the future, the aim would be to expand the research into these earlier periods. (b) Fibre from retted jute is extracted by (viii) Hands with jerks and pulls (c) Separation of fibres from jute stem (iv) Retting (d) Compressed bundles of cotton (iii) Bales (e) Cotton is collected from cotton plants by (v) Hand picking (f) Separation of cotton from seeds (ix) Ginning (g) Loose rope of cotton fibres (ii) Sliver (h) Animal fibres (c) Jute is the outer covering of coconut. (v) Cotton is used to make clothes, bedsheets, cooking oil and artificial fibres like rayon. It consists of a large long heavy wooden block with a longitudinal groove, attached to a wooden frame. After hand decortication the fibres were then knotted, twined and woven into fabric. Tomasek, T., 1996. Of course, I didn’t reach the full yield, that a good ret would deliver. Heat setting by ta 1. 130-132. The image shows weaving, spinning and carding of wool, but the third woman seems to be working with flax. Kolchin, B. Inside the plant, flax fibres are arranged in a circle around the central core of the stem. After dyeing, the PH levels in the dyebaths are neutralized and the water is used to irrigate an olive grove near the dye studio. After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were wa... Decorticated kenaf stalks were retted by bacterial and chemical processes. She sits in front of a tree trunk with multiple rows of long prongs, and she is pulling long fibres through the prongs. (v) Jute is used to make ropes, mats, packaging, material, sacks. Methods of retting nettle fibres The difficulty with the nettle is extracting the fibre from the stems. In 2017 I left the flax too long on the ground, so that the pectin in between the elementary fibres decomposed into smaller pieces. ting. There are 13th century songs about scutching. Abrasion behavior indicates that fibre cohesion is strong in the fabric system, and it causes the shear of the fibres themselves. The difficulty with the nettle is extracting the fibre from the stems. Q. 2.5. Dewilde, B., 1999. Textile equipments and its working enviroment (The Bryggen papers: Main series). The cut plants are grouped at different places in the field for few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down. The oldest depiction of a flax break is from a 15th century fresco in the parish church of Saak/ Austria, which dates to 1465. In a 13th century text by Gottfried von Neifen on the topic of flax processing: „si kann beidiu dehsen unde swingen“ (She can do both, breaking and scutching. The fibrous stem after retting has to be mechanically processed to extract of fibre of good quality. • Total fibre production is more compared to conventional whole plant retting, where a substantial portion of fibre is lost during retting and washing. Science. The body of the club was mostly made from apple, walnut or ash (Dewilde, 1999, pp.81-82; Scheuermeier, 1956, p.233). Freshwater retting is used for fully ripe coconut husks, and saltwater retting is used for green husks. Retting and microbial action on the plants will help dissolve the pectin and lignin that hold the fibres in the plants. Wunderlich, W., 1996. High concentrations of lime prevent retting (Linke, 1982, p.20; Fasse, 1989, p.25; Birkigt-Quentin, Busse and Schäfer, 1995, p.9). The research for this project was able to trace a lot of pre-industrial tools to the Middle Ages and even prior to this time. The simplest recorded method was to beat the bundles of flax against a wall to remove all the seed vessels (Hagen and Tödter, 1985, pp.25-26). Almost 85% of the world's jute cultivation is concentrated in the Ganges Delta.. A similar tool, however, with a grooved underside for breaking the stems, is depicted in the 16th century, for example by the Flemish illuminator Simon Bening (Hansen, 1984, p.147). The plants are now tied into small bundles. The same board shape is seen in pictures by the painter Simon Bening, date to 1515. In most cases, the fiber extraction process of bast fibers in water retting is done by the farmers while standing under water. This process is called ‘retting’. Bäuerliche und handwerkliche Arbeitsgeräte in Westfalen, Aschendorf. It is done in the way as the wicks are made from cotton wool at homes. By ratting, the long bast fibres are separated from the non-fibre parts of the stocks. The hackling comb itself has the shape that has survived to today. Spinning is done at home using simple devices like hand spindle (takli) and charkha. In the Middle Ages, probably only one plant was cultivated that provided both (Knöchel and Vogeler, 2001 p.115). The author sets the step of smoothing after the hackling, which matches the depictions from the House Zur Kunkel. Reutter, R., 1979. JUTE FIBRE Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. The oldest mentions of the flax break are found in secondary literature, dating its invention to around the 13th century. Rotting out of gumming skin of jute stem to separate fibres is retting. Website: EXARC.net It is made from beech and looks like a broadsword, which is probably where the German name for this tool originated. The first process is the retting of the plant stems to dissolve the pectin which fixes the fibres to the stalk. Edit. Introduction. What is retting? (iii) Coir is obtained from fruits of Kapok tree. Fibre is extracted from the retted jute by hand, with jerks and pulls. Summer flax’s early sowing season means it is harvested at the end of July or the beginning of August. As yet the author has only found modern descriptions of tow processing (Siuts, 1982, p.156). If the temperature is too high the fibre will be damaged, which is why artificial drying was not always used. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide of many plant cell walls and plant tissues . Ciba-Rundschau Nr. Flachs und Leinen zwischen Leine und Weser. to soak in water or expose to moisture, as flax or hemp, to facilitate the removal of the fiber from the woody tissue by partial rotting. It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Winter-flax is sown in autumn and harvested the following year but this flax was rarely cultivated. The sheaf is then turned and worked on the other side. This fresco depicts Christ during a feast surrounded by tools among which a flax break can be found. After hackling, washing and drying (in the shade) the fibres are loosened manually and cleaned. Again, from House Zur Kunkel, this process is depicted and entitled as “riben” however, there is not a tool in the hands of the worker. Rheda-Wiedenbrück. This is unlikely to be an image of wool combs as they are normally depicted as pairs with only one or two rows. Heidelberg. In the “Heidekloster Wienhausen”/ Northern Germany there are depictions of scutching on two tapestries. For both methods of retting it is very important to end the retting at the right moment. In this project she has to make a list of items from her home that are made up of different fibres and she has to classify them into plant, animal or synthetic fibres on … Played 0 times. 6th grade. The plant was introduced to Cuba in the 19th century and became the country’s chief fibre crop by Warmer weather shortens the time, but if it is too dry, the flax must be sprinkled with water regularly as decomposition is achieved mostly by the fungal action. Unlike modern hackling were the comb is clamped into a light wooden frame, medieval depictions show women that have the hackling comb pressed against their knee. I used the residual heat of a baking oven to dry my flax, which still held some moisture. Pectin, while often low in amounts, is strategically located and binds cell walls within plants . During smoothing, the fibres are not only aligned but also smoothed with very fine silky fibres produced (Fasse, 1989, p.37). Adelebsen, Uslar, Wahlsburg. Heidelberg. Slideshare | Vimeo, EXARC LinkedIn Page Please check individual images for licensing details. (b) Spinning is a process of making fibres. Field retting is the most practical method of hemp fiber production for farmers in the US, but little research has been done on the microbiota associated with hemp stalks during field retting, or on applied practices that improve the quality and consistency of the fiber without substantially increasing cost. During an event I had the chance to try out oven drying. The retting breaks down the pectin that holds the fibers to the core. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Exposure to … (i) Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of jute plants. In the retting process the pectin, the so-called vegetable glue that surrounds the fibres, is dissolved by either bacteria (water retting) or by fungus (dew retting). However, hemp has very fine fibres at the centre of the stem (Körber-Grohne, 1987, p.383). Heat setting is a process of imparting dimensional stability of fibers or yarns with successive heating and cooling in dry and most condition. 252-266. 1. Hemp unlike flax, has not only one, but several rings of fibres and much stronger stems. This type of work has not changed in the last century, which is shown in a photograph taken in 1911 in Spenge/Germany (Fasse, 1989, p.37). It is not clear whether “dehsen” stands for beetling or breaking of the flax. 6. If the weather is bad, it can take a very long time for the flax to dry or, in the worst case, the whole harvest is lost. Early Egyptian wall paintings show the flax plant being harvested by pulling the plant out of the ground root (Klebs, 1915, pp.54-55) and all, a practice that has survived to today. Spinning can be done by hand, by takli and charkha. Threshing, used with cereals, cannot be used as a method as it damages the stems. It is now possible to trace all the work steps and associated tools used in the Middle Ages. 0 times. There is an illumination from France, dating to the first half of 15th century, also depicting this process (British Library Royal 16 G V f. 56 Gaia Caecilia). When looking at the depiction by Glockendon, it suggests that it could be either breaking or scutching, whereas other depictions show more likely a step in breaking. Dambroth M. and Seehuber R., 1988. Archäologie im Rheinland. Cultivation is dependent on the climate, season, and soil. 62, Basel, pp.2262-2273. Fibre rupture occurred as abraded agains t standard worsted fabric (Abdullah et al., 2006) During the course of abrasion in textiles, fibre to fibre cohesion plays an important role, usually influenced by yarn twist or close fibr e packing. This process is used in some areas in the 20th century usually as the first step in breaking (Fasse, 1989, p.29). The looms are either hand operated or power operated. Methods of retting nettle fibres. The German name of “Dutch breaking chair” suggests the break being invented by the Dutch (Dewilde, 1999, p.155). In: Lied im Deutschen Mittelater Chiemsee-Colloquium 1991, Tübingen, pp.115-128. In my initial experiments, the yield probably was significantly lower, but should still be viewed as successful given the lack of experience. The hemp fibres are separated by ratting, which is the process of decaying pectin that binds the hemp fibres to the core of the stem. The flax is spread out thinly and turned every day, while being dried by the sun. Answer: Spinning is the process of converting fibres into yarn by twisting the fibres using various machines. The fineness depends an variety of pineapple and prosperity of the leave. A rippler can be seen in an early Egyptian wall painting, in which a worker stood behind a long wooden plank mounted at an oblique vertical angle, at the upper end are tines through which the flax was being drawn (Kaukonen, 1946, p.81). (e) Silk fibre is obtained from the stem of a plant. Oxford. Retting plant material smells strongly! Vom Flachs zum Leinengarn, Münster. Your email address will not be published. When a single yarn is used, the fabric is prepared by knitting. Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Flachspflanze. Bark was soaked in a tank of water for 9 weeks in the water retting process. Facebook Group: EA In this study, molecular, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy studies were employed to understand the field retting mechanisms involving microbiota, including microbial community dynamics, hemp colonization, functions/interactions, and hemp biodegradation. (i) Cotton fibre is obtained from the flowers of cotton plants. The next steps of processing take place in late autumn and winter. ATM said the development team is working to increase capacity of the machine, which bypasses the retting of hemp stalks in water, and can also strip away fiber from nettle and linen plants when adjusted. (a) Yam is made from fibres. Water retting seemed to take less time and the fibres were brighter and more uniform, than those achieved with dew retting. Explain how fibres are obtained from the jute plants. Several methods of removing seeds have survived in recorded history. My flax break is a reconstruction based on the depictions of Albrecht Glockendon, in a calendar from 1526, and the fresco in Saak. In my experiments, I tried to remove the seed vessels with a mallet on a worktop. Bauernwerk in Italien. One tapestry dates to the end of the 14th / beginning of the 15th century and the second tapestry to 1480. Flachs Züchtung, Anbau, Verarbeitung. Kaukonen, T.-I., 1946. Herausgeber Fansa, Mamoun, Oldenburg, pp.103-136. In the middle of a longish board, there is a round block with tightly fitted pointed nails. Retting is the main challenge faced during the processing of bast plants for the production of long fibre. 3.10). The Hungarian National museum exhibited a 13th century comb excavated in the 1950s from a former medieval village. Today we distinguish two types of flax, for the extraction of linseed and for the extraction of fibre. The State Museum in Braunschweig possesses a scutching sword, dated to the 13th century, that was found in downtown Braunschweig/ Germany. In this process fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. Henequen, (Agave fourcroydes), fibre plant of the asparagus family (Asparagaceae), native to Mexico and Guatemala. Depending on the weather, dew retting takes approximately three to five weeks. Although these archaeological finds lack the evidence of plant remains to clarify what was actually dried inside (Berthold, 1999, p.131). Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. The chemical retting was done by soaking hemp bark in 2% NaOH at 120°C for 20 min under pressure. The traditional methods for separating the long bast fibres are by dew and water retting. There were coarse and fine hackling combs used in succession to receive very fine and long fibres. In many parts of our country, handloom cloth is produced in large quantities. By retting, part of it is removed in order to free the fiber. (iv) Cotton is mainly cultivated in Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc. retting, where a substantial portion of fibre is lost during retting and washing. Work with this break is fast and effective. In addition, my first attempt at dew retting was in October 2014 in Northern Germany, when it was probably already too cold with daytime temperatures around 16-18 degrees. There are finds from the Middle Ages of crude wooden combs, that may have been used for rippling. (i) Fibres obtained from natural resources are called natural fibres. It seems evident that many farmer tools changed very little over time until the industrial age. Following retting, a sequence of processes to remove the fibres from the woody stalks is carried out first by breakingthem and then scraping or scutchingthem off which is done by beating with blunt wooden or metal blades either by hand or mechanically. Each cell is about 1 mm (0.04 in) long and 10 to 20 μm (0.0004 to 0.0008 in) in diameter. However, 19th century Italian texts seem to explain the process. Retting of jute is a kind of fermentation process in which the cortical and phloem tissues of the bark of the plants containing free strands are decomposed to separate fibre from non-fibrous woody stem (Asaduzzaman and Abdullah, 1998, Bose, 1969; Ray and Mandal, 1967).The fermentative microorganisms consume the cementing materials viz., the pectins, hemicelluloses and … After retting, the flax is dried again. Stuttgart. From the Middle Ages on, there is written and archaeological evidence of drying in ovens (Lipp, 1989, pp.8-9) or special drying units that differed from region to region. What is retting? A pull-out hackling comb, which was very coarse was used for pulling out the branched flower stems, something that isn’t done everywhere. The frescoes in Constance illustrate hemp fibre processing with a local specialty depicted in the breaking process. I have tried to break the flax with a wooden club and it works, but restricted that to splitting the stems lengthwise and the work takes longer. (d) Weaving of yam makes a piece of fabric. Flax Fibre Extraction Techniques in the Late Middle Ages, Institutional Members Higher Education Centres, Institutional Members Groups & Associations, Registration Form for Institutional Members, The Steinzeitpark Dithmarschen (DE): Concept and Development of a Visitor Oriented Educational Centre for Sustainable Development, Experimental Archaeology in Latvia: some Possibilities for Future Development, Have you got the tine? Weaving: The process of making fabric by crossing two sets of yarns over and under each other is called weaving. Answer: Jute plants are cut at the flowering stage when plants are 8-10 feet high. Scutching, as with breaking, is very exhausting work. "retting" which separates the fibre from the decaying part of the plant. Von Flachs und Leinen in alter Zeit. Statement 2: The process of retting softens the tissues and helps to separate the fibres. Linz. by ritaranipanigrahy_91662. during this retting period is done by ... commonly used flax process of decortication allows the mechanical extraction of fibre from plant stems without prior retting. What happens when a yam from a tom sock is pulled? Cramer, T., 1998. The methods used in processing differed from area to area and not every step is present everywhere. The cut plants are grouped at different places in the field for a few days when most of the leaves dry up and fall down. Waz hilfet ane sinne kunst?. Vom Flachs zum Leinen. Linke, W., 1982. This medieval comb is almost identical to a 19th century hackling comb in the author’s possession. Fabric are made from yarn by two main processes : 1 Weaving 2 Knitting. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. It is somewhat difficult to find a fitting association. The process of making fabric or cloth by arranging yarns at right angles to them, is called weaving.The process of making a fabric by interlocking loops of single yarn with knitting needles or machines, is called knitting. Science. Fibres are first converted to yarn by the process of spinning. Another processing step, that has survived from at least the Middle Ages to the last century, but not used everywhere, is called smoothing. Cotton is also used to make some artificial fibres like rayon. Retting is carried out to increase the mechanical properties of natural fiber, such as banana pseudo-stem fiber . In the Odenwald region, there is written evidence dating from the 18th century that describe these types of structures being used to dry flax (Heimberger, 1957, p.254). 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