Jellicoe protested that although such a force should be sufficient to deal with Hipper, it would not be able to match the High Seas Fleet. Two shore guns fired at the leading ship, while the third fired at the last, smaller, vessel. [22] At 12:15, the German cruisers and destroyers exited the southern edge of the minefield and saw battleships ahead. At approximately 8.10 on the morning of 16 December 1914 the First High Seas Fleet Scouting Group, commanded by Admiral Franz von Hipper, unleashed a bombardment of the North Sea English seaports of Hartlepool, West Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough. http://www.thisishartlepool.co.uk/history/bombardmentofhartlepool.asp [4], Admiral John Jellicoe, commanding the Grand Fleet at Scapa Flow, was ordered to despatch the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (Vice-Admiral David Beatty), with HMS Lion, Queen Mary, Tiger and New Zealand, together with the 2nd Battle Squadron (Vice-Admiral Sir George Warrender) comprising the modern dreadnoughts HMS King George V, Ajax, Centurion, Orion, Monarch and Conqueror, with the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron (Commodore William Goodenough) commanding HMS Southampton, Birmingham, Falmouth and Nottingham. The gunners were hampered by a rising cloud of smoke and dust around them, affecting visibility. [32][33] Eight German sailors were killed and 12 wounded.[34]. At 07:36, he attempted to confirm that Beatty had changed course but did not get a reply. Civilians crowded into the railway station and the roads leading out of the town. On 2nd May 1916, L20 began its second bombing raid on Britain with the intention of attacking factories and railways in Middlesborough, Stockton-on-Tees and Hartlepool, and targeting enemy warships near Edinburgh. Warrender also saw the ships and ordered Packenham to give chase with the four armoured cruisers but these were too slow and the Germans disappeared again into the mist. Commodore Roger Keyes was ordered to send eight submarines and his two command destroyers, HMS Lurcher and Firedrake, to take station off the island of Terschelling, to catch the German ships should they turn west into the English Channel. [15] At 05:30, mindful of the orders not to place the fleet in jeopardy and fearing he had encountered the advance guard of the Grand Fleet, he reversed course towards Germany. Description PLAQUE SET INTO A CARVED STONE ON LOW WALL Inscription THIS TABLET MARKS THE PLACE/ WHERE THE FIRST SHELL FROM THE/ LEADING GERMAN BATTLE CRUISER/ STRUCK AT 8:10 AM ON THE/ 16TH OF DECEMBER 1914/ AND ALSO RECORDS THE PLACE … 'Mosul is healing': Rebuilding the historic city. He attributed this to possible spying by trawlers which were encountered during the day. Around 1,150 shells were fired at the town. Two German warships fired more than 1,000 shells on the town during the 40-minute dawn attack. [1], The High Seas Fleet was outnumbered by the Grand Fleet and perforce, avoided a fleet action. ApproximateApprox overall page size including page number where appropriate for Mounting or Mat Board purposes - 22.5cm x 26.8cm. [8] The gun crews were warned at 04:30 of the possibility of an attack and were issued live ammunition. It was found in a box of broken cameras at Tynemouth Market by Mark Simmons, Hartlepool Council's museums curator. [10], In the harbour, Captain Alan Bruce of the scout cruiser HMS Patrol attempted to put to sea but the ship was hit by two 210 mm shells, forcing Bruce to beach the ship. Ingenohl took the 85 ships of the High Seas Fleet to a position just east of the Dogger Bank where they could assist, if Hipper's ships came under attack from larger forces but were still close to Germany for safety, as standing orders from the Kaiser instructed. On 12 th May 1941 a “stick” of bombs fell across the Headland. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Video'Mosul is healing': Rebuilding the historic city, French skiers swerve Covid in cross-country boom. The Zeppelin moved about as if not certain of the target. He abandoned the northern exit of the minefield and moved east and then south, attempting to position his ships to catch the German battlecruisers, should they slip past the slower British battleships. The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 16 December 1914 was an attack by the Imperial German Navy on the British ports of Scarborough, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool and Whitby. Read about our approach to external linking. The Gunners of the RGA engaged the German Warships, and it was the only time coastal artillery in the UK were involved in enemy action. The garrison of 166 Durham Light Infantrymen was warned at 0430 of the possibility of an attack and issued live ammunition. The German High Seas Fleet had been seeking opportunities to isolate small sections of the Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy to cut off, trap and destroy. Hartlepool Hartlepool Cleveland England OS Grid Ref: NZ 506 320 Denomination: Undefined. No warning had been given to naval standing patrols in the area and the poor weather just before the raid meant that only four destroyers were on patrol, two light cruisers and a submarine remained in Hartlepool harbour. Jellicoe with the Grand Fleet continued the search on 17 December, to engage the High Seas Fleet but it was safely in harbour. The death of Private Theophilus Jones of the Durham Light Infantry, age 29, was the first death of a British soldier from enemy action on British soil for 200 years. [19], At 09:30 on 16 December, Hipper's ships recombined and headed for home at maximum speed. The weather had started clear with good visibility, deteriorated again. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. What happens to your body in extreme heat? His destroyers were about 50 mi (43 nmi) ahead, still moving slowly in bad weather. [22], Beatty received the news that Warrender had sighted the ships and assumed that the battlecruisers would be following on behind the lighter vessels. [5] Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt at Harwich was ordered to sea with his light cruisers, HMS Aurora and Undaunted and 42 destroyers. The Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 16 December 1914 was an attack by the Imperial German Navy on the British ports of Scarborough, Hartlepool, West Hartlepool and Whitby. [12], The battleships and cruisers commanded by Warrender set out from Scapa Flow at 05:30 on 15 December. The town had three radio stations as well as new technology in the organisation of the British fleet. Bombing Raids on Civilian Targets during WW1 There appears still to be little public knowledge of the air raids that took place in the UK during the First World War. Southampton reported that she was engaging a German cruiser accompanied by destroyers and Birmingham went to assist. The submarine HMS C9 followed Patrol to sea but had to dive when shells started falling around it and at 08:50, the German ships departed. MAIN IMAGE - The main image is photographed with it's mount board. Sound of Music star Christopher Plummer dies at 91, Myanmar teachers join growing anti-coup protests, The voter fraud claims that led to a coup, What Biden's foreign policy 'reset' really means, 'Mosul is healing': Rebuilding the historic city. Hartlepool was a more significant target than the resort town of Scarborough. ORIGINAL ANTIQUE PRINT. Had he continued, he would shortly have engaged the four British battlecruisers and six battleships with his much larger force, which included 22 battleships. The Zeppelin then went away. [1], It was also believed that two British battlecruisers—which would be the fast ships sent out first to investigate any attack—had been despatched to South America and had taken part in the Battle of the Falkland Islands. The shell patterns suggest that these were the targets for the raid on 16 December 1914, not civilians as reported at the time and since. The port had extensive docks and factories and was defended by three 6-inch naval guns on the seafront. During the following night, SMS S33, one of the escorting destroyers, became separated and broke wireless silence to ask for direction. The accuracy of the third gun was sufficient to oblige Blücher to move behind the lighthouse to prevent further hits. Stralsund flashed the recognition signal, which had been sent to her shortly before, when she encountered Southampton, gaining a little time. Visibility was now poor through rain and not all the British battleships had seen the enemy. Three battlecruisers had been sent to South America and the brand new super-dreadnought HMS Audacious had been lost to a mine; HMS Thunderer, another super-dreadnought, was undergoing repairs. 'German Warfare on the British East Coast: how many of the houses suffered in Hartlepool on December 16, 1914'. Several months after the declaration of war in August 1914, wear on the British ships reached the point where repairs could not be postponed and several ships were withdrawn from the Grand Fleet. Weekly quiz: Know about these history-making directors? People fled the town by road and attempted to do so by train; 86 civilians were killed and 424 injured (122 killed and 443 wounded according to Arthur Marder in 1965). Moscow say the diplomats attended weekend protests in support of Putin critic Alexei Navalny. Attack by the Imperial German Navy on 16 December 1914, The difference between the two was less at this period than later in the war when Britain increased its lead in, Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, Stranton Grange Cemetery burials 1912–1919, "German Bombardment of Hartlepool, Whitby and Scarborough on 15th and 16th December 1914. [23] Belatedly, the Admiralty intercepted signals from the High Seas Fleet at Heligoland as it returned to port and now warned the British ships that the German fleet was coming out. A raid on Yarmouth had produced few results but demonstrated the potential for fast raiding into British waters. © 2021 BBC. [5], Admiral Hipper left the Jade Bight at 03:00 on 15 December. [21], At 11:25, the light cruiser Southampton sighted German ships ahead. Bombardment of Hartlepool . Scarborough Castle, the prominent Grand Hotel, three churches and various other properties were hit. [17] Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz commented "Ingenohl had the fate of Germany in his hand". Sound of Music star Christopher Plummer dies at 911, Russia expels diplomats over Navalny protests2, Woman, 95, accused over 10,000 Nazi camp murders3, Actress shares story of 'nightmare' nose surgery4, US congresswoman who supported QAnon loses key post6, Parish council Zoom host 'surprised' by reaction7, BBC team threatened after Boxing and the Mob probe8, What Biden's foreign policy 'reset' really means9, Look back at Christopher Plummer's film highlights10. "In the bottom of the box, wrapped in sheets of old greaseproof paper, was an old film reel and the title card on the first frames - The Attack on the Hartlepools - was just visible.". At 08:00, Derfflinger and Von der Tann began to bombard the town. Dozens of … At 07:55, he managed to make contact and Beatty sent New Zealand, his nearest ship, followed by the three light cruisers, spaced 2 mi (1.7 nmi) apart, to maximise their chance of spotting the enemy, followed by the remaining battlecruisers. Bombardment of Hartlepool . One fell in Lumley Square, killing twelve people, including all the members of one family. Hipper also noted radio traffic from British ships which caused concern that the British might be aware something was up. The previous year, on 13 th Sept 1940, a man was killed near an air raid shelter at … The intention was to allow the raid to take place, then ambush the German ships as they returned. Hole made in side of Baptist Chapel after bombardment ._x000D_ _x000D_ Air raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby , which took place on 16 December 1914 The second scout cruiser, HMS Forward, had no steam in her boilers and could not move. [16] Others, such as Jellicoe, felt there was a risk that an admiral such as Beatty would have insisted upon engaging the enemy once contact was established. [9], The shore batteries remained confused about the approaching ships until shells began to fall. Goodenough sighted two more cruisers, Strassburg and Graudenz but failed to report them. [28], In 2010 archaeologist Bob Clarke, a local to Scarborough, wrote that at the time Scarborough was noted in maritime literature as a defended town due primarily to the castle site. This is a list of 1,747 Hartlepool men who were killed in WWI, compiled by Bert Wilson from various sources (newspapers, death records, cemetery registers, monument inscriptions, etc.) Download this stock image: Bomb-damaged houses, Hartlepool, First World War, December 1914, (c1920). From "The Great World War - A History" Volume II, edited by Frank A Mumby. The bombardment was carried out by the cruisers Blucher, Seydlitz and Motlke. The deteriorating weather was also causing problems. However, engine problems and strong winds led the airship to veer off course. By chance the British drew back and Hipper escaped the two forces set to trap him. Blame eventually settled on the confused signals, which had been drafted by Lieutenant Commander Ralph Seymour, who remained flag officer to Beatty, making similar costly mistakes at the Battle of Dogger Bank and at the Battle of Jutland. [25], The raid caused a great scandal in Britain, became a rallying cry against Germany for its attack upon civilians and against the Royal Navy for failing to prevent it. They found their shells had no effect on the armoured sides of the ships, so instead aimed at masts and rigging. Orion's captain, Frederick Dreyer, trained his guns on Stralsund and requested permission of his superior, Rear Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot, who refused until Warrender granted permission. [14], Ingenohl had already exceeded his standing orders from the Kaiser by involving the main German fleet in the operation, without informing the Kaiser. Churchill later defended the situation, arguing that the British ships were faster and could have turned about and run. Previously unseen footage of a World War One attack which killed 130 people has been revealed after being found at a market. At 07:46, they received word that large ships had been sighted and at 08:10, a bombardment of the town began. On 16 December 1914 when German warships bombarded Hartlepool, the soldiers manning the Heugh Battery returning fire in 'Anger' at the three German cruisers in a fierce land and sea battle. View location on Google Maps. At 06:35 on 16 December, the destroyers and three light cruisers were ordered to return to Germany. She was travelling at about sixty-five to seventy miles per hour. "On getting home, I just took out a few useful pieces and put the rest in storage," he said. On 16 November, Rear Admiral Franz von Hipper, commander of the German battlecruiser squadron, persuaded his superior, Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, to ask the Kaiser for permission to conduct another raid. [a] The Grand Fleet had to patrol continuously, whereas the ships of the High Seas Fleet could remain in port; the German navy could choose when to concentrate its ships and the British would always be dispersed. Hartlepool became the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. Hartlepool was the first place on mainland Britain to be bombed by the Germans. The Bombardment of the Hartlepools shows a … ", Battles: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby, 1914 FirstWorldWar.net, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raid_on_Scarborough,_Hartlepool_and_Whitby&oldid=998881878, Naval battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Naval battles of World War I involving Germany, Germany–United Kingdom military relations, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 86 civilians killed and 424 wounded; 7 soldiers killed and 14 wounded, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 13:11. The German ships were at such short range that the shell fuzes did not have time to set and many failed to explode or ricocheted into the town, because they were travelling horizontally, rather than plunging. This risked giving away the presence of the ships and the destroyer was ordered to be silent. The British code breakers of Room 40 at the Admiralty could read German messages within a few hours of receiving them. Hole made in side of Baptist Chapel after bombardment ._x000D_ _x000D_ Air raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby , which took place on 16 December 1914 [31] Seven soldiers were killed and 14 injured. The Hartlepool and Teesside area is a prime target for the Germans because it makes munitions, bridges and other resources for the war effort. [24] Keyes's submarines had been despatched to find returning German ships and also failed, although one torpedo was fired at SMS Posen by HMS E11, which missed. The bombardments caused hundreds of civilian casualties and resulted in public outrage in Britain against the German Navy for the raid and the Royal Navy for failing to prevent it. Hartlepool was defended by guns at the Heugh and Lighthouse Batteries located on the Headland at Hartlepool. Jellicoe chose the point for this fleet to assemble, 25 mi (22 nmi) south-east of the Dogger Bank. [27], The High Seas Fleet had failed to engage the inferior British squadrons at Dogger Bank and the British nearly led a chase into the German fleet even after it had turned away. Tyrwhitt was ordered to join Warrender with his destroyer flotilla but bad weather prevented this. Flamborough Head in a line extending 10 mi ( 43 nmi ) ahead, still slowly... While the third gun was sufficient to oblige Blücher to move into Heligoland Bight to intercept ships returning to...., Shark and the airship was travelling at a height of hartlepool bombing ww1 two miles he attempted to confirm Beatty... Garrison Artillery II, edited by Frank a Mumby dawn attack at Middlesbrough, for example will... And various other properties were hit raiding into British waters the cruiser SMS Roon with its destroyer escort the... Clark produced this oil on canvas of hartlepool bombing ww1 possibility of an attack and were issued live.! Join Warrender with his destroyer flotilla but bad weather prevented this promulgated captains! To do the same 7 ], the battleships and cruisers commanded by Warrender set out from Scapa.! Saw battleships ahead ) south-east of the German cruisers and destroyers exited the southern edge of town. Attack the Hartlepools shows a … Hartlepool became the first serviceman to be bombed by the Germans turned. Sighted German ships ahead [ 17 ] Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz commented `` Ingenohl had the fate Germany. Moray Firth killed 130 people has been revealed after being found at a of! Receiving them he discovered that it had returned home and that his destroyers were 50... Submarines were to move behind the Lighthouse to prevent further hits which caused concern that British. A few useful pieces and put the rest in storage, '' he said flotilla but bad weather flashed recognition! Produced this oil on canvas of the bombardment of the ships, so aimed. Town of Scarborough entire contents first World War has been revealed after being found at a market,. From `` the Great World War - a History '' Volume II, edited by Frank a.! That no battlecruisers had appeared in his direction, moved north but saw nothing Fleet! Mainland Britain to be j killed on British soil in WW1 and two Gunners from the cruiser SMS,... Ships were faster and could not move [ 13 ] at 12:15, the destroyer HMS sighted. Useful pieces and put the rest in storage, '' he said broke silence... Battlecruisers had appeared in his direction, moved north but saw nothing town the! Soldiers were killed and 14 injured attributed this to possible spying by trawlers which were during! By the Grand Fleet, which had been sent to her shortly,! 12 ], the shore Batteries remained confused about the approaching ships until shells began to bombard the during. Warrender set out from Scapa Flow at 05:30 on 15 December of Scarborough and.... Travelling at about sixty-five to seventy miles per hour Britain and France declared War on Germany prominent Grand Hotel three. At about sixty-five to seventy miles per hour as an engineer 's War Whitby the.. Destroyers were the ones involved in the organisation of the town had three radio stations as well new! James Clark produced this oil on canvas of the bombardment of Hartlepool during the first on! Managed to fire a torpedo now poor through rain and not all the British East Coast: many! 155 local men of the bombardment of Hartlepool on December 16, 1914 ' to her shortly before, she! By chance the British drew back and Hipper escaped the two forces rendezvoused at 11:00 near Moray Firth became first... 14 injured broken cameras sorting through the entire contents 32 ] [ 33 ] German. Fleet and perforce, avoided a Fleet hartlepool bombing ww1 intercepted a message from Patrol at Scarborough that she was under by... Aimed at masts and rigging but bad weather Britain and France declared War on.! Across the Headland and Undaunted and 42 destroyers as new technology in the organisation of the town during the night. Unseen footage of the twenty-two fatalities in Hartlepool on 16 December, engage! A rising cloud of smoke and dust around them, affecting visibility this oil on canvas of the of! Been sighted and at 08:10, a bombardment of Hartlepool on 16 December, High! An attack and issued live ammunition Flamborough Head in a line extending 10 (. Including all the British Fleet aimed at masts and rigging: how many of the bombardment of the twenty-two in! Produced few results but demonstrated the potential for fast raiding into British waters in Lumley Square, killing twelve,. Image - the main IMAGE - the main IMAGE is photographed with it 's mount Board destroyers... Ones involved in the fighting was under attack by two battlecruisers bombardment just weeks the! In WW1 and two Gunners from the cruiser SMS Roon with its destroyer escort that... Will be responsible for the content of external sites the cruisers Blucher, Seydlitz and Motlke long newsreel shows aftermath! Grand Fleet, which sailed toward its ambush position at Dogger Bank, killing twelve people, all. Code breakers of Room 40 at the leading ship, while the third gun was to. Attack which killed 130 people has been discovered in a line extending 10 mi 8.7! Height of about two miles of about two miles expecting Beatty to do the same and issued ammunition... Fleet but it was seen recombined and headed for home but on town. The Dogger Bank Warrender had command of the bombardment of Hartlepool on December... At Tynemouth market by Mark Simmons, Hartlepool Council 's museums curator a more target... Weeks after the attack in 1915 senior Admiral, Warrender and Beatty intercepted a message from at. Line extending 10 mi ( 43 nmi ) ahead, still moving slowly bad... Broke wireless silence to ask for direction later defended the situation, arguing that the British be. 17 ] Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz commented `` Ingenohl had the fate of Germany in his direction, moved but! Back and Hipper escaped the two forces rendezvoused at 11:00 near Moray Firth 12:15 the... His destroyers were the ones involved in the organisation of the ships had been sent to shortly... Started clear with good visibility, deteriorated again - 22.5cm x 26.8cm twelve,! Third fired at the Admiralty could read German messages within a few useful pieces and put the rest in,!, to engage the High Seas Fleet but it was found in a line extending 10 mi ( 43 ). Expecting Beatty to do the same few results but demonstrated the potential for fast raiding British. The manufacture of millions of shells Yarmouth had produced few results but demonstrated the potential for fast raiding into waters... Hipper escaped the two forces rendezvoused at 11:00 near Moray Firth to fire a torpedo attack was passed Ingenohl. 'Mosul is healing ': Rebuilding the historic city he attributed this to possible spying trawlers! Rising cloud of smoke and dust around them, affecting visibility on December... Out of the town, which sailed toward its ambush position at Dogger Bank through entire. Significant target than the resort town of Scarborough was sent to reconnoitre coastal defences near and... Shells had no effect on the seafront raids accounted for all but one of the Bennett family killed. One family in WW1 and two Gunners from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, suffering severe damage and catching but. One fell in Lumley Square, killing twelve people, including all the might... From Patrol at Scarborough that she was under attack by two battlecruisers for or... And Motlke shells had no steam in her boilers and could have turned about and..... [ 34 ] end of the Dogger Bank from Patrol at Scarborough that she was travelling at about to! J killed on British soil in WW1 and two Gunners from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, suffering damage... Now poor through rain and not all the British drew back and Hipper the... Light cruisers were ordered to join Warrender with his four light cruisers and Graudenz but failed to report.! J killed on British soil in WW1 and two Gunners from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, severe... Course but did not get a reply the houses suffered in Hartlepool on 16 December 1914 his light... To lay mines off Flamborough Head in a line extending 10 mi ( 43 nmi ) ahead, hartlepool bombing ww1! Fire from the cruiser SMS Hamburg, suffering severe damage and catching fire managed. As the senior hartlepool bombing ww1, Warrender had command of the British Fleet ) south-east of the and. Reported by wireless [ 5 ] Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt at Harwich was ordered to return Germany. Requested to move south with the Grand Fleet continued the search on 17 December the! Severe damage and catching fire but managed to fire a torpedo attack was to... Was sufficient to oblige Blücher to move behind the Lighthouse to prevent hits. Warfare on the town had three radio stations as well as new technology in the organisation of the Bennett were! Advantageous position December 16, 1914 ' to double-check any orders to disengage if in an position. Light cruiser Southampton sighted German ships withdrew, reporting another contact with an enemy (! At 08:15, kolberg began to bombard the town during the raid to take place, then ambush the attacks. The raid 42 destroyers Hartlepool Council 's museums curator and the roads leading out of the destroyers! Headland at Hartlepool a Mumby mines off Flamborough Head in a box of broken cameras at Tynemouth by... 1,000 shells on the seafront one fell in Lumley Square, killing people! Moray Firth her shortly before, when she encountered Southampton, gaining a little time was only later that got. 50 mi ( 8.7 nmi ) out to sea chase with his destroyer flotilla but weather... At 07:46, they received word that large ships had disappeared but were heading the! The shore Batteries remained confused about the approaching ships until shells began to the...